viernes, marzo 24, 2017

3 ways of using Docker Containers for Testing in Arquillian

Arquillian Cube is an Arquillian extension that can be used to manager Docker containers from Arquillian.

With this extension you can start a Docker container(s), execute Arquillian tests and after that shutdown the container(s).

The first thing you need to do is add Arquillian Cube dependency. This can be done by using Arquillian Universe approach:

Then you have three ways of defining the containers you want to start.

The first approach is using docker-compose format. You only need to define the docker-compose file required for your tests, and Arquillian Cube automatically reads it, start all containers, execute the tests and finally after that they stop and remove them.

In previous example a docker compose file version 2 is defined (it can be stored in the root of the project, or in src/{main, test}/docker or in src/{main, test}/resources and Arquillian Cube will pick it up automatically), creates the defined network and start the service defined container, executes the given test. and finally stops and removes network and container. The key point here is that this happens automatically, you don't need to do anything manual.

The second approach is using Container Object pattern.  You can think of a Container Object as a mechanism to encapsulate areas (data and actions) related to a container that your test might interact with. In this case no docker-compose is required.

In this case you are using annotations to define how the container should looks like. Also since you are using java objects, you can add methods that encapsulates operations with the container itself, like in this object where the operation of checking if a file has been uploaded has been added in the container object.

Finally in your test you only need to annotate it with @Cube annotation.

Notice that you can even create the definition of the container programmatically:

In this case a Dockerfile file is created programmatically within the Container Object and used for building and starting the container.

The third way is using Container Object DSL. This approach avoids you from creating a Container Object class and use annotations to define it. It can be created using a DSL provided for this purpose:

In this case the approach is very similar to the previous one, but you are using a DSL to define the container.

You've got three ways, the first one is the standard one following docker-compose conventions, the other ones can be used for defining reusable pieces for your tests.

You can read more about Arquillian Cube at

We keep learning,
And did you think this fool could never win, Well look at me, i'm coming back again, I got a taste of love in a simple way, And if you need to know while i'm still standing you just fade away (I'm still Standing - Elton John)

lunes, enero 09, 2017

Develop A Microservice with Forge, WildFly Swarm and Arquillian. Keep It Simple.


In this post we are going to see how to develop a microservice using WildFly Swarm and Forge and testing it with Arquillian and Rest Assured.

WildFly Swarm offers an innovative approach to packaging and running Java EE applications by packaging them with just enough of the server runtime to "java -jar" your application.

JBoss Forge is a software development tool that extends your Java IDE, providing wizards and extensions (add-ons) for different technologies and solutions.

Arquillian is a platform that simplifies integration testing for Java middleware. It deals with all the plumbing of container management, deployment, and framework initialization so you can focus on the task of writing your tests—real tests.

REST Assured brings the simplicity of testing and validating REST services in dynamic languages such as Ruby and Groovy into the Java domain.

So the first thing you need to do is installing Forge, to do it you can just download the CLI console from or navigate to and download the plugin for Eclipse, Netbeans or IntelliJ. For this example, I am going to use the CLI one.

After you've installed Forge and it is available in PATH environment variable you can start working on it.

First of all go to the directory where you want to store the project and run forge.
After a few seconds, you'll see that Forge is started and you are ready to type commands:

After that you need to install the wildfly-swarm addon. To do it just type next command on Forge shell:

> addon-install-from-git --url

Then the latest addon will be downloaded and installed. After this setup step, you can start creating your microservice by calling:

> project-new --top-level-package org.superbiz --named foo --type wildfly-swarm

This command creates a new project called foo, with pom.xml prepared with all wildfly swarm requirements. Next step is adding a wildfly swarm fragment. A fragment is a way to define which modules you want to be able at runtime.

> wildfly-swarm-add-fraction --fractions microprofile

In this case microprofile fraction is added. This means that at runtime CDI + JSON-P + JAXRS will be available.

Addon also creates a JAX-RS endpoint as an example, you can check it by running next two commands:

> cd src/main/java/org/superbiz/rest/
> ls

Then return to root of the project and let's call the command that creates an Arquilian test for the microservice.

> wildfly-swarm-new-test --target-package org.superbiz --named HelloWorldEndpointTest --as-client

In this case the test is called HelloWorldEndpointTest and test is going to run in Arquillian as-client mode (which means that the test is not deployed inside the container and will be run at local runtime). You can check the generated code with next two commands:

> cd src/test/java/org/superbiz
> cat

Notice that test does not validate nothing yet, but since we are using as-client mode, the test injects the URL where the application is started. Let's add some checks using REST-assured.
Return to the root of the project and add REST-assured dependency by calling next command:

> project-add-dependencies
> cat pom.xml

Finally you can use REST-assured in empty test to validate that your microservice endpoint effectively returns "Hello from WildFly Swam!".

When you run this test, what it is happening behind the scene is that the microservice is packaged and deployed locally. When service is ready to receive incoming requests, then the test will send a GET request to /hello and asserts that the response body is "Hello from WildFly Swam!"

You can see this running at

This is a really simple example, and this was the intention of this post. Just show you how using Forge and just running some commands you get an started project with its integration test running.

We keep learning,

I'm not giving up today, There's nothing getting in my way, And if you knock knock me over, I will get back up again (Get Back Up Again - Trolls)


jueves, octubre 13, 2016

Build Docker Images with Maven and Gradle

One of the things that you might want to do if you are using Docker and Java is building the image from a Dockerfile in your build tool (Maven or Gradle).  In this post I am going to show you how to do it in both cases.

I am going to assume that you have the de-facto project layout, having the Dockerfile file at the root of the project.


There are several Maven plugins that can be used for building a Docker image in Maven, but one of the most used is fabric8-maven-plugin.

To start you need to register and configure the plugin in pom.xml:

In configuration section you set the image name and the directory where Dockerfile is located.

Any additional files located in the dockerFileDir directory will also be added to the build context. Since Dockerfile is on the root of the project, the target directory is added too. The problem arises because this plugin uses target/docker to generate the build and if you try to build it you'll get next exception:  tar file cannot include itself. To avoid this problem you need to create .maven-dockerignore file specifying which directory must be ignored at the same level as Dockerfile:

And that's all, after that you can do:

mvn package docker:build

Notice that this plugin honor Docker environment variables like DOCKER_HOST, DOCKER_CERT_PATH, ... so if your environment is correctly configured you don't need to do anything else.


There are several Gradle plugins that can be used for building a Docker image in Gradle, but one of the most used is gradle-docker-plugin.

To start you need to register and configure the plugin in build.gradle:

In case of Gradle, you need to configure Docker host properties since plugin does not honor Docker environment variables. You need to configure them in docker {} block.

Finally you create a task of type DockerBuildImage, where you set the Dockerfile root directory using inputDir attribute and image name using tag attribute.


So in this post you've seen different ways of doing the same in two different build tools, which is building a Docker image from a Dockerfile. Notice that these plugins also allows you to define the Dockerfile content as a configuration field, so you are not creating a Dockerfile file, but specifying its content inside the build tool. You can read more about this feature at in case of Maven plugin and in case of Gradle.

We keep learning,

Bees'll buzz, kids'll blow dandelion fuzz, And I'll be doing whatever snow does in summer., A drink in my hand, my snow up against the burning sand, Prob'ly getting gorgeously tanned in summer. (In Summer - Frozen)

jueves, septiembre 22, 2016

Authenticating with JGit

JGit is a lightweight, pure Java library implementing the Git version control system. You can do a lot of operations using Java language such as create or clone Git repos, create branches, make commits, rebase or tag, you can see this repo to learn how to use JGit and how to code the different commands.

But one thing that does not cover extensively is the authentication process. In this post I am going to show you how how to authenticate to a Git repository with JGit.

First thing to do is add JGit as dependency:

Then let's see a simple clone without authentication:

In this case no authentication method is set. Now let's see how to add a username and password in case of for example private repos:

In this case you only need to set as credential provider the UsernameAndPasswordCredentialsProvider and pass the required username and password.

The final scenario I am going to show here is how to authenticate against a git repository using your ssh keys, that is using (~/.ssh/id_rsa) and setting the passphrase to access it.

In this case you need to extend JSchConfigSessionFactory to be able to set passphrase to access to private key. To do it you set a custom UserInfo implementation where the getPassphrase method returns the passphrase to use and promptPassphrase method should return true.

After that you only need to set the transport configuration to the one created.

We keep learning,
Chan eil inneal-ciùil a ghleusar, 'Dhùisgeas smuain mo chléibh gu aoibh, Mar nì duan o bheul nan caileag, Oidhche mhath leibh, beannachd leibh (Oidche Mhath Leibh - Ossian)

lunes, septiembre 19, 2016

Arquillian Chameleon for the sake of simplicity

When using Arquillian, one of the things you need to do is defining under which container you want to execute all your tests.

And this is done by adding a dependency in the classpath for the adapter and depending on the mode used (embedded, managed or remote) having to download the application server manually. For example this happens when Wildfly is used in embedded or managed mode.

An example of a pom.xml using Wildfly could be:

Notice that in previous script, you need to define the Arquillian adapter, in this case the managed one, and use maven-dependency-plugin to download Wildfly distribution file used by Arquillian.

This approach is good and it works, but it has three drawbacks:

  1. You need to repeat all these lines in every build script you want to use Arquillian and Wildfly.
  2. In case you need to use another application server in another project, you need to know which adapter artifact is required and if it is necessary to download  the artifacts or not. For example in case of Jetty embedded it is not necessary to download any distribution, you only need set the embedded dependency.
  3. If you want to test your code against several application servers you have the problem number 2 plus start dealing with profiles.
But all these problems can be fixed using Arquillian Chameleon. Arquillian Chameleon is a generic container which reads from arquillian.xml which container, which version and which mode you want to use in your tests, and he will take care of adding required adapter into classpath, download any required distribution and configure the protocol (this is something that as a user you should not touch).

How to use Arquillian Chameleon is pretty easy. Do whatever you would do normally such as adding Arquillian bom and add Chameleon Container instead of any application-server specific artifact:

Then create in src/test/resources the Arquillian configuration file called arquillian.xml with next configuration:

Notice that now you only need to use a friendly property called chameleonTarget to define which container, version and mode you want to use. In previous example Wildfly 9.0.0.Final with managed adapter.

When running any test with this configuration, Chameleon will check if Wildfly 9.0.0.Final distribution is downloaded, and if not download it, then will add to classpath the managed adapter for Wildfly 9.0.0 and finally execute the test as any other Arquillian test.

What's happening if you want to use Payara instead of Wildfly? You only need to change chameleonTarget property to payara:, to for example run tests against Payara 4.1.1 in managed mode.

TIP: You can set this property using a Java system property (-Darq.container.chameleon.chameleonTarget = payara:

Currently next containers are supported by Chameleon:

  • JBoss EAP 6.x, 7.x
  • WildFly 10.x, 9.x, 8.x
  • JBoss AS 7.x
  • GlassFish 3.1.2, 4.x
  • Payara 4.x

We keep learning,
I can see you, Your brown skin shining in the sun, I see you walking real slow(The boys of summer - The Ataris)

lunes, agosto 29, 2016

Configuring Maven Release Plugin to Skip Tests

If you are using Maven and using Maven Release Plugin, you would like to skip the execution of tests during the release plugin execution. The reason might be very different but might depend on the nature of the project or how CI pipeline is implemented.

Notice that this might be a really improvement in releasing time since performing the release with Maven Release Plugin implies executing the same tests twice, one in prepare step and the other one in perform step.

To avoid executing tests in prepare phase you need to run as:

mvn -DpreparationGoals=clean release:prepare

If you want to avoid executing tests during perform phase you need to run as:

mvn -Darguments="-Dmaven.test.skip=true" release:perform

Please it is important to note that I am not saying you don't need to execute tests during release process, what I am saying is that something your release process doesn't fit the standard release process of the plugin and for example you are already running tests before executing the plugin.

We keep learning,
Say it ain't so, I will not go, Turn the lights off, carry me home, Keep your head still, I'll be your thrill, The night will go on, my little windmill (All The Small Things - Blink-182)

jueves, agosto 18, 2016

Making Web UI testing great again with Arquillian, Docker and Selenium (part 1)

Introduction to the Problem

Most of the time when you need to write functional tests/end-to-end tests for web UI, you end up by using Selenium, which it can consider the de-facto tool in Java world for web UI testing. I am sure you've already used it for these kind of tests.

But probably at the same time you've been faced on some the most common problems in functional testing, some related with Web UI testing and others not.

For example one of the major problems usually people find in functional tests are the preparation of the environment, to run the tests you need to boot up a server and deploy your application, then install/start the database, also maybe the cache system and so on with all the servers, leaving the user to install locally each of the service. Some errors could happen like installing incorrect version of the server used in production, reusing another local installation of the database which might not be the same version or for example running them in a different JDK version of the one used in production.

But also there are some other problems that are more specific to Web UI testing such as browser installation or configuration of WebDriver properties.

Fixing First Problem

To fix the first problem, the most easier solution you can think is using Docker containers and of course Docker compose since you can define and run multi-container Docker applications. So basically you define in docker-compose file, all the servers that you might need to run the tests so when you run tests you have all of them running and more important with a fixed version, so you can be sure that the tests are always run against a known/desired specific version of the servers, same JDK, ... and not depending on what is installed in developers/CI machine.

But this approach has one problem. You need to specifically run docker-compose up, docker-compose down. Of course you can automate this in your build script, which will solve the problem on CI environment, but if a developer wants to execute a test from IDE, let's say for debugging, then he needs to be aware of that fact.

And this is what Arquillian Cube solves. Arquillian Cube is an Arquillian extensions that  uses docker-compose file to start and configure all the containers defined there, execute the tests and finally shutting down all of them. The good news is that since Arquillian works with JUnit (and TestNG and Spock), you can run the tests from the IDE without worrying about starting and stopping containers since Docker lifecycle is managed by Arquillian Cube.

So first part of the problem that is defining the test environment is fixed with Arquillian Cube. Let's see how to fix the second one.

Fixing Second Problem

Selenium project provides a Docker images with Selenium standalone or Selenium node with browser (Firefox or Chrome) and a VNC server installed.

So it seems a perfect fit to fix the problem of having to install browsers with a concrete version or concrete configurations locally since you can use a docker image with a browser configured for the tests.

New Problems When Using Docker for Testing

And that's cool, but it has some problems. The first one is that you need to create a docker-compose file specific for testing purposes, although this is not a bad thing per se, but it requires more management from dev part to maintain this file as well and of course repeat again and again in all the projects you want to use it, defining the browser to use and the VNC client image to get the recording for future inspection.

The second problem is the configuration of WebDriver. When running WebDriver against a remote browser, you need to set the location (IP) of the browser and configure the RemoteWebDriver accordantly with desired capabilities.

So again you have to write in all the tests the WebDriver configuration again and again. You can create a factory class that can be reused in all the projects, and it is good, but you still have one problem, some developers might use Docker machine so IP would not be static and might change every time, other might be using native Docker, and for example some phases of CI pipeline might run the tests against a remote fully environment like preproduction environment, so before executing tests you would need to specify manually the IP of container of Docker host.

And the third problem you'll get is that you need to instruct WebDriver to open a page:


The problem is that in this case the browser is inside the Docker infrastructre so you need to set the internal IP of the server container, so you don't only need to know the Docker host IP for connecting the remote web driver but also the internal IP of the server container to open the page in remote browser using the get method. And again this might be quite difficult to acquire in an automatic way.

But all these problems are solved when using the new integration between Arquillian Drone and Arquillian Cube.

Fixing New Problems

Arquillian Drone is an Arquillian extension that integrates Selenium WebDriver to Arquillian. This extension manages the configuration of the WebDriver so you don't need to repeat it in all your tests, and also the lifecycle of the browser.

So as you can see this pair of extensions seems a perfect fit for solving these problems. Drone takes care of configuration meanwhile Cube takes care of configuring correctly the Selenium/VNC containers and starting and stopping them.

As you might see, you don't need to worry about creating docker-compose file for testing purposes. You only need to create the one used for deploying, and Arquillian will take care of the rest.


The first thing to do is create a project with required dependencies. For this example we are using Maven, but you can achieve the same using other build tools.

Things important to notice is that you are using BOM definitions for setting versions of the components. Then we set Arquillian Standalone dependency because our test is not going to have @Deployment method since the deployment file is already created inside the Docker image used in the application. Finally Arquillian Cube and Arquillian Drone dependencies are added.

Next step is creating at src/test/resources a file called arquillian.xml which is used for configuring extensions.

You can see that:

  • You need to specify the docker machine name where to start containers in case of using docker machine. If you are using native Docker then you don't need to set this attribute.
  • You need to set a location relative to root folder of the project where docker-compose file is located. Note that you could use any other name.
You can customize WebDriver as well configuring Arquillian Drone (,  but for this test the defaults are enough. Note that now the default browser is firefox.

IMPORTANT: if you are using native Linux Docker installation, comment the configuring line of machineName. If you are using docker machine and it is called different to dev, then adapt machineName in arquillian.xml too.

Next step is creating the docker-compose file at root directory.

Simple compose file which defines only one container. This containers exposes the 80 port but then it is bound to port 8080. This container start a Go program listening to root context and returning Hello World in HTML format.

And finally the test:

There are some interesting parts in this test.

  • It is a standard Arquillian test in the sense it uses Arquillian runner.
  • Uses @Drone injection mechanism provided by Arquillian Drone to enrich test with a WebDriver configured to connect to remote browser.
  • Uses @CubeIp annotation to enrich test with the internal IP of the container helloworld. Since browser is running inside Docker host, we can use the internal IP for this purpose. Also it is important that you need to use the exposed port and not the bind port.
  • Everything else is managed by Arquillian Cube like the start and stop of the Docker containers(helloworld in this case) but also the ones containing the browser and the VNC client. If you put a debug point inside test method, and then execute a docker ps on a terminal, you'll see that three containers are started, not just helloworld
  • If after running the test you inspect target/reports/videos directory you will find the video recording of the test.
You can also see an screencast of this in action:

So as you can see using Arquillian Cube with Arquillian Drone makes your test and docker-compose file looks really neat.  Test only contains things related of the test and not about WebDriver configuration. Also your docker-compose looks clear, it only contains things related to business, not about testing.

In this post you've seen how to use Arquillian Cube + Arquillian Drone. In next one you'll see the integration with Arquillian Graphene, which will simplify even more the test to just focusing testing and not on WebDriver calls.

We keep learning,

When I look 'round, I only see outta one eye
As the smoke surrounds my head, the sauna (Stickin' In My Eye - NOFX)

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